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汽车涂装喷漆废气处理技术探讨及应用

时间:2019/12/25   来源:东贝环保   访问量:17 次

QICHETUZHUANGSHIYOUQIXIAOHAODEDAHU,YOUYUCHENGBENHEJISHUDEXIANZHI,WOGUOQICHETUZHUANGDABUFENSHIYONGDIANYONGDIQI+YOUJIRONGJIXINGQI


汽车涂装是油漆消耗的大户,由于成本和技术的限制,我国汽车涂装大部分使用电泳底漆+有机溶剂型漆。以生产一辆小型轿车为例,消耗阴极电泳底漆10kg以上,有机溶剂型油漆(中涂、面漆、罩光漆等)5kg以上,商用车如卡车、客车等用量更大。电泳底漆烘干过程中产生大量具有刺激性恶臭气味的油烟、有机溶剂型油漆喷漆及烘干过程中挥发的溶剂均为有机成分。在汽车涂装过程中,除少量漆膜(占油漆总重量的40%以下)附着在车身表面外,其它有机成分均挥发于空气中形成有机废气。以年产800万辆汽车,车均用漆15kg,固化后成分占喷漆总量40%计算,每年有机成分排放量为7.2万t,汽车涂装有机废气的排放已经成为一个突出的环境问题。


  1有机废气的危害及处理原理


  YOUJIFEIQIDUIHUANJINGDEWEIHAISHENDA。RENRUGUOZHANGQIXIRUDINONGDUDEYOUJIFEIQIHUIYINFAKESOU、XIONGMEN、QICHUANSHENZHIFEIQIZHONGDENGMANXINGHUXIDAOJIBING,YOUQIRONGJIZHONGDEJIAQUAN、BENLEIHUAHEWUDENGCHENGFENSHIMUQIANGONGRENDEQIANGLIEZHIAIWU。CHUCIZHIWAI,YOUJIFEIQIDUIGUANGHUAXUEYANWU、SUANYUDEXINGCHENGQIZHEFEICHANGZHONGYAODEZUOYONG。YOUYUYOUJIFEIQIDEWEIHAIXING,WOGUODUIYOUJIFEIQIDEPAIFANGYIZHIYOUZHEYANGEDEKONGZHI,XIANXINGBIAOZHUNWEI1997NIAN1YUE1RISHISHIDEGB16297-1996《DAQIWURANWUZONGHEPAIFANGBIAOZHUN》(YIJIANCHENG《BIAOZHUN》)。


安徽快3  YOUJIFEIQIDECHULI,YIBANSHITONGGUOJIANGYOUJIFEIQIZHONGDEYOUJICHENGFENHEKONGQIZHONGDEYANGQIFANYINGFASHENGFENJIE,SHENGCHENGH2O、CO2HEQITAYIXIEDIDUDEHUAHEWU(RULUDAITINGHEYANGQIFANYINGHOUKEYICHANHOULUSUAN)。CHANGWENXIAFEIQIZHONGDEYOUJICHENGFENHEYANGQIBUFANYING,ZAIFEIQICHULISHEBEIDEGAOWEN、CUIHUADENGTIAOJIANXIA,FEIQIZHONGDEYOUJICHENGFENFASHENGFENJIECONGERSHIFEIQIDEDAOJINGHUA。


  2烘干过程有机废气的治理方法


安徽快3  YOUQIHONGGANSHICHANSHENGDEYOUJIFEIQISHITUZHUANGFEIQIZHILIDEZHONGDIAN。TUZHUANGHONGGANGUOCHENGHONGDAOZHONGXUYAOBUDUANCHOUCHUFEIQIHEBUCHONGXINXIANKONGQI,YISHIHONGDAOQITIZHONGYOUJICHENGFENDIYUQIBAOZHAJIXIAN,HONGGANYOUJIFEIQIZHONGDEYOUJICHENGFENZHUYAOWEIYOUJIRONGJIHEYOUQIGAOWENGUHUAFANYINGDECHANWU,FEIQIZHONGYOUJICHENGFENHANLIANGYIBANDADAO1000mg/Nm3YISHANG,YUANYUANCHAOGUO《BIAOZHUN》YAOQIU,JUNXUCHULIHOUCAINENGPAIFANG。HONGGANYOUJIFEIQICHANGYONGDEFEIQIJINGHUASHEBEIYOUCUIHUARANSHAOZHUANGZHI、XURESHIRELIFENSHAOZHUANGZHIHEFEIQIFENSHAOLU,XIAMIANFENBIEJIESHAO。


  2.1催化燃烧装置


安徽快3  CUIHUARANSHAOZHUANGZHI,SHIFEIQIZHONGDEYOUJICHENGFENZAICUIHUAMEIDEZUOYONGXIACHANSHENGFENJIEERDEMING。SHIYANZHENGMING,ZAIMEIYOUCUIHUAMEIDETIAOJIANXIA,YAOSHIFEIQIZHONGYOUJICHENGFENHEKONGQIZHONGDEYANGQIFANYING,QIWENDUYAODADAO600℃YISHANG。CUIHUARANSHAOZHUANGZHIZAIBO、BADENGCUIHUAMEIDEZUOYONGXIA,ZAI320℃YISHANGFEIQIZHONGYOUJICHENGFENJIHEYANGQIFANYINGFASHENGFENJIE。


  2.1.1CUIHUARANSHAOZHUANGZHIYUANLI


  YOUJIFEIQIXIANJINGGUOREJIAOHUANQIYURE,ZAIJINGGUODIANJIAREQIDEJIAREDADAO350℃ZUOYOU,ZAIJINRUFENGWOTAOCICUIHUAMEICHONGTIANDECUIHUACHUANGZHONG,ZAICUIHUAMEIDEZUOYONGXIA,FEIQIZHONGYOUJICHENGFENCHONGFENFENJIE,LIKAICUIHUACHUANGJINGHUAWEIQIZAIYUDAICHULIDEYOUJIFEIQIJINXINGREJIAOHUANJIANGDIWENDUHOUPAICHU。


安徽快3  2.1.2CUIHUARANSHAOZHUANGZHIYOUDIAN


安徽快3  CUIHUARANSHAOZHUANGZHIJIEGOUJIANDAN,ZHANDIMIANJIXIAO,JIAGEBIANYI。YIYITAOYOUJIFEIQICHULINENGLI5000Nm3/hDECUIHUARANSHAOZHUANGZHIWEILI,ZHANDIJINXU8m2,JIAGEZAI20WANYUANYIXIA。ZHENGSHIYOUYUSHANGSHUYOUDIAN,CUIHUARANSHAOZHUANGZHIZAIWOGUOZAOQIJIANSHEDEXIAOPILIANGDEQICHESHENGCHANXIANHONGGANSHIYOUJIFEIQIDEJINGHUAZHONGSHIYONGGUANGFAN。


  2.1.3CUIHUARANSHAOZHUANGZHIQUEDIAN


  CUIHUARANSHAOZHUANGZHIZAIYUNXINGYIDUANSHIJIANHOU,CUIHUAMEIBEIHUICHEN、YOUYANDENGFUGAIHUOHEMOUXIEHUAHEWURUQIAN、XINZUYUANSUJIEHECONGERSHIQUCUIHUAZUOYONG,ZHEIZHONGXIANXIANGCHENGWEICUIHUAMEIZHONGDU。CUIHUAMEIZHONGDUHOU,CUIHUARANSHAOZHUANGZHIBIANSHIQUYOUJIFEIQIJINGHUAZUOYONG,XUGENGHUANCUIHUAMEI。WEIBAOZHENGJINGHUAZHILIANG,YIBANCUIHUAMEIZAISHIYONGYINIANZUOYOUJIUXUGENGHUAN。YOUYUZHEIGEYUANYIN,CUIHUARANSHAOZHUANGZHIJINSHIYONGHANDIFEIDIANYOUJICHENGFEN、HUICHENHANLIANGDIDEYOUJIFEIQIDECHULI,RUYOUJIRONGJIXINGKAOQIDEZHONGTU、MIANQI、ZHAOGUANGQIDEHONGGANFEIQICHULI,ERDUIYUDIANYONGQIHONGGANCHANSHENGDEFEIQI(HANYOUYANDENGZHANXINGWUZHI)CHULIZEBUYICAIYONG。


  CUIHUARANSHAOZHUANGZHIZAIYUNXINGGUOCHENGZHONGJINGHUANENGLIZHUJIANSHUAIJIAN,JINGHUAXIAOGUOBUWENDING,JINGHUAHOUQITIPAIFANGWENDUYIBANZAI300℃YISHANGNENGHAOJIAODA。YOUYUSHANGSHUYUANYIN,CUIHUARANSHAOZHUANGZHIJINSHIHEXIAOPILIANGQICHEHONGGANFEIQIDECHULI,JINLAIXINJIANDAPILIANGQICHETUXIANZHONG,CUIHUARANSHAOZHUANGZHIYIJINGZHUJIANBEIRTOHEFEIQIFENSHAOLUSUOQUDAI。


  2.2蓄热式热力焚烧炉(以下简称RTO)


  JINNIANLAISUIZHEWOGUOQICHEDAPILIANGQICHESHENGCHANXIANDEJIANSHE,RTOYIQIJIAGESHIZHONG、JIENENG、SHIYONGYUDAFENGLIANGYOUJIFEIQICHULIDETEDIAN,ZAIXINJIANDAPILIANGQICHETUZHUANGSHENGCHANXIANZHONGDEDAOGUANGFANSHIYONG。


安徽快3  2.2.1RTOYUANLI


  RTOSHILIYONGYOUJIFEIQIZAILUTANGGAOWENHUANJINGXIAFENJIEDEFANGFA。GENJUXURESHIDESHULIANGBUTONG,CHANGYONGDERTOFENWEIERSHI、SANSHIJIEGOU。XIAMIANJIANYAOJIESHAOERSHIRTODEYUANLI。



  每个蓄热室中充填蓄热陶瓷,其下方有一个进气口和一个排气口。风阀11打开时,风阀22也打开,风阀12、21处于关闭状态,有机废气通过蓄热室1时,和蓄热室1中的蓄热体放热使有机废气温度升高进入炉膛,炉膛中的燃烧机可以确保炉膛内的温度在设定温度(约800℃),在炉膛的高温环境下,废气中的有机成分充分分解后成为净化尾气,净化尾气经过蓄热体2时,蓄热室2中的蓄热体蓄热使净化尾气温度降低送入烟囱排放,在上述过程进行中,蓄热室2温度不断升高,蓄热室1温度不断降低。上述过程进行一段时间后,通过气流方向切换(风阀11,22关闭,风阀12,21打开),蓄热室1由放热转为蓄热状态,蓄热室2由蓄热转为放热状态。通过对风阀的自动控制,每隔一定时间(约180秒),气流方向即发生一次转换。


安徽快3  YOUYUERSHIRTOZAIQILIUFANGXIANGQIEHUANSHI,CHUYUFANGREZHUANGTAIDEXURESHIZHONGDECANLIUYOUJIFEIQISHANGWEIJINRULUTANGFENJIEZHIJIEPAIFANG,SUOYIERSHIRTODUIYUYOUJIFEIQIDEZONGTIQUCHULVZAI95%ZUOYOU。


  SANSHIRTOTONGGUOYISHIXURE(ZHUANHUANHOUWEIFANGRE),YISHIFANGRE(ZHUANHUANHOUWEICHUISAO),YISHICHUISAO(ZHUANHUANHOUWEIXURE),NENGGOUJIEJUEQILIUFANGXIANGQIEHUANSHIFANGREZHUANGTAIXURESHIZHONGDEYOUJIFEIQICANLIUWENTI,JINGHUALVNENGDADAO99%YISHANG。


  2.2.2RTOYOUDIAN


  经过RTO处理后的有机废气,排气温度仅比进气温度高50℃左右。由于废气中有机成分分解时产生热量使废气温度升高,当废气中有机成分达到2000mg/Nm3以上时,炉膛的燃烧机不用开启即可维持设定温度,即达到不消耗燃料的情况下有机废气得到净化的状态。


  RTOKEYONGYUSUOYOUTUZHUANGHONGGANYOUJIFEIQIDEJINGHUA,TUZHUANGCHEJIANDESUOYOUHONGGANFEIQIKEJIZHONGQILAI,YOURTOTONGYICHULI。RTODUIYOUJIFEIQIDECHULIXIAOGUOWENDING,SHIYONGSHOUMINGKEDA10NIAN,SHIYONGSHOUMINGZHUYAOQUJUEYUFENGWOZHUANGXURETIDEDUSAIQINGKUANG。DANGXURETIDUSAIZAOCHENGFEIQILIUTONGBUCHANGDACONGERSHIFEIQICHULILIANGJIANGDISHI,ZHIXUYAOGENGHUANXURETI(ZHANRTOZONGCHENGBENDE25%YIXIA)JIKEJIXUSHIYONG。


安徽快3  2.2.3RTOQUEDIAN


  YOUYURTODUIYUXIAOFENGLIANGYOUJIFEIQIDECHULISHIREXIAOLVDI,JINSHIYONGYU5000Nm3/hYISHANGYOUJIFEIQIDECHULI。RTOTIJIJUDA,YIBANXUYAOZAITUZHUANGCHEJIANWAISHEZHIZHUANYONGCHANGDI,YI20000Nm3/hFEIQICHULINENGLIDEERSHIRTOWEILI,ZHANDIMIANJIYUE16m×10m。


  2.3废气焚烧炉


安徽快3  ZAIOUXIQICHECHANGJIA(RUYIQIDAZHONG、SHANGHAIDAZHONG、DONGFENGSHENLONG、HUACHENBAOMA),TUZHUANGHONGGANDEFEIQICHULIHEHONGFANGGONGREDUOCAIYONGFEIQIFENSHAOLUCHULIHONGGANFEIQIHEWEIHONGGANSHIGONGRE。


  2.3.1FENSHAOLUYUANLI


安徽快3  YOUJIFEIQIXIANJINGGUOREJIAOHUANQISHENGWENHOUZUOWEIRANSHAOJIDEZHURANFENGJINRUFENSHAOLUTANGFENSHAO,LUTANGNEIYOUJIFEIQIHEHUOYANCHONGFENHUNHE,HUNHEQITIWENDUDA750℃ZUOYOU,ZAIFENSHAOLUTANGZHONG,YOUJIFEIQIFENJIECHENGWEIJINGHUAWEIQI,JINGHUALVDADAO98%YISHANG,CONGFENSHAOLUTANGCHULAIDEJINGHUAWEIQIZAITONGGUOREJIAOHUANQIJIANGWENHOULIKAIFENSHAOLU。ZAIREJIAOHUANQIJINGHUAWEIQIDERUKOUHECHUKOUSHEYOUPANGTONGGUANHEYUREFENGFA,YOUYUJINGHUAWEIQITONGGUOHUANREQIDEZULIJIAODA,ZAIYUREFENGFADAKAISHI,DABUFENJINGHUAWEIQITONGGUOYUREFENGFAZHIJIELIKAIFENSHAOLU,DIAOJIEYUREFENGFADEKAIQICHENGDUKEDIAOJIEJINGHUAWEIQIJINRUREJIAOHUANQIDELIULIANGCONGERDIAOJIEJINGHUAWEIQILIKAIFENSHAOLUDEWENDU,JINGHUAWEIQIWENDUKEDIAOFANWEIZAI340℃(YUREFENGFAQUANBI)DAO560℃(YUREFENGFAQUANKAI)ZHIJIAN。JINGHUAWEIQICONGFENSHAOLUCHULAIHOUBEISONGRUHONGFANGDEGEJIJIAREXIANGZUOWEIHONGFANGDEREYUANSHIYONG,DUOJIHUANREHOU,PAIFANGWENDUKEJIANGZHI200℃YIXIA。


  2.3.2焚烧炉优点


  FEIQIFENSHAOLUZAIWEIHONGFANGGONGREDETONGSHI,DUIHONGFANGCHANSHENGYOUJIFEIQIJINXINGLEJINGHUA,YIJULIANGDE。YOUJIFEIQICHULIXIAOGUOWENDING,SHIYONGSHOUMINGKEDA20NIAN。


  2.3.3FENSHAOLUQUEDIAN


  YOUYUJISHUSUOXIAN,GAILEIFENSHAOLUXIANYOUGUOCHANHUAYINGYONG,ZHUYAOYOUOUZHOUJINKOU,RUWK,Durr,EnvirotecDENG,YIYITAI8000Nm3/hDEJINKOUFEIQIFENSHAOLUWEILI,JINYITAOFEIQIFENSHAOLUDEJIAGEJIUDA20WANOUYUANYISHANG,TOUZIJUDA。


  3喷漆过程有机废气的形成和治理


  3.1喷漆有机废气的水洗及排放


安徽快3  PENQIGUOCHENGZHONGCHANSHENGHANYOUDALIANGQIWUDEYOUJIFEIQI,ZHEIXIEQIWUYOUSEQIHEYOUJIRONGJIZUCHENG,SEQIHANYOUYANLIAODENGYOUDUCHENGFEN,QIDUXINGYUANDAYUYOUJIRONGJI,CHANGYONGDEJINGHUAFANGFASHITONGGUOSHUIXIDEFANGSHIXIANJIANGQIWUZHONGDESEQIHERONGJIFENLI。CHANGYONGDESHUIXIFANGFAYOUSHUILIANSHI、SHUIXUANSHI、WENQIULISHIDENG,TONGGUOSHUIXI,QIWUZHONGDESEQICHENGFENQUCHULVNENGDADAO98%YISHANG。SHUIXIYONGSHUIXUNHUANSHIYONG,ZAIXUNHUANSHUIZHONGJIARUYOUQIXUNINGJI,SEQIJIYIGUTIXINGSHIXICHU,ZAITONGGUOGUAZHAJI、CHENDIANCHIDENGFANGJIANGGUTIXINGTAIDESEQICONGXUNHUANSHUICAOZHONGLAOCHUJINYIBUCHULI。


  YOUYUYOUJIRONGJIBURONGYUSHUI,SHUIXIGUOHOUDEFEIQIZHONGRENGHANYOUJIRONGJI,WEIDADAO《BIAOZHUN》YAOQIU,WOGUOYIBANCAIYONGGAOYANCONG、DAFENGLIANGPAIFANGDEFANGFA。


  3.2沸石转轮浓缩装置


安徽快3  DUIYUPENQIGUOCHENGZHONGSHUIXIHOUYOUJIFEIQIDECHULI,MUQIANXIFANGGUOJIABUFENCAIYONGLEFEISHIZHUANLUNNONGSUO+FENSHAODEFANGFA。


安徽快3  3.2.1FEISHIZHUANLUNYUANLI


安徽快3  FEISHIZHUANLUNLIYONGFEISHIDIWENXIFU、GAOWENTUOFUDETEXINGDUIYOUJIFEIQIJINXINGNONGSUO。


  ZHUANLUNZAIZHUANDONGGUOCHENGZHONG,ZHUANLUNZHONGDEFEISHITONGGUOXIFUQU-TUOFUQU-LENGQUEQU-XIFUQUXINGCHENGXUNHUAN。DAICHULIYOUJIFEIQIZAIJINGGUOZHUANLUNSHIFENLIANGBUFEN,DABUFENYOUJIFEIQIJINGGUOXIFUQUQIYOUJICHENGFENBEIXIFUHOUZHIJIEPAIFANG,XIAOBUFENYOUJIFEIQIJINGGUOLENGQUEQUSHIFEISHIJIANGDIWENDUZHONGXINJUYOUXIFUNENGLI,ZHEIYIXIAOBUFENYOUJIFEIQILIKAILENGQUEQUHOUJINGJIAREQIJIAREDAO190℃ZUOYOUJINRUTUOFUQUSHIFEISHIZHONGYOUJICHENGFENSUIZHILIKAIZHUANLUN。NONGSUOHOUDEFEIQIYOUJICHENGFENHANLIANGDADAODAICHULISHI10BEIYISHANG。


安徽快3  3.2.2FEISHIZHUANLUNYOUDIAN


  NONGSUOHOUDEFEIQITONGGUOFEIQIFENSHAOLU、RTODENGCHULIHOUPAIFANG,YOUYUNONGSUOHOUDEFEIQILIANGJINYOUDAICHULIFEIQIDESHIFENZHIYIYIXIA,CONGERDADAJIANGDILENENGHAO。FEISHIZHUANLUNSHIYONGSHOUMINGJIAOZHANG,KEDA10NIAN。


  3.2.3FEISHIZHUANLUNQUEDIAN


安徽快3  FEISHIZHUANLUNTOUZIJUDA,YI200000Nm3/hCHULINENGLIZHUANLUNZHUANGZHIWEILI,TOUZIZAI1000WANYUANYISHANG。MEIGUOMENGTEGONGSISHIFEISHIZHUANLUNDEFAMINGZHE,ZAISHICHANGFANGMIANJUYULINGXIANDIWEI。


  4有机废气处理装置的选择


安徽快3  ZAIXUANZEYOUJIFEIQICHULIFANGFADESHIHOU,YAOGENJUQICHENGFEN、NONGDU、WENDU、SHIDU、YOUWUQITAZAZHIDENGTIAOJIAN,CANKAOYOUJIFEIQICHULISHEBEIDETEXING、JIAGE、YUNXINGFEIYONG、CHULIXIAOGUO、SHIYONGSHOUMINGDENGYINSUZONGHEKAOLVZUOCHUXUANZE,BIAO1LIEJULESHANGSHUFEIQICHULISHEBEIDETEDIAN,YIGONGCANKAO。